God “will keep them” (His words) by setting “him” (the man) in safety like He said He would in verse 5. Furthermore, manuscripts should be weighed, not counted, and the peculiar traits of each manuscript should be duly considered. It typically suppresses the deity of Christ and the ministry of the Holy Spirit, turning the Bible into a social gospel. And every mountain and hill brought low; Apparently, the note-writer regarded Codex Vaticanus as a museum-piece to be protected and preserved, rather than as a copy of Scripture to be used as such. Persecution under Maximinus the Thracian (235-38). Please notice, Westcott & Hort’s first rule is basically “older is better”. However, the New Covenant superseded the Old, and at that point, the Old “passed away” or was rendered void… Just like Jesus said. When he finished he had produced an edition of the Greek New Testament which more closely underlies the text of the AV than any one edition of the Textus Receptus.”, G. W. Anderson and D. E. Anderson, “The Received Text: A Brief Look at the Textus Receptus.” (Trinitarian Bible Society, 1999). (The Masoretic text is the traditional Hebrew text, and contains far fewer textual variants than the New Testament.) Great info, to the point, well done. So – just to make sure I’m understanding you correctly – it sounds like you’re saying it’s reasonable to ignore whether a word is singular or plural when exegeting the scriptures? Irenaeus in the 2nd century, though not in Alexandria, made a similar admission on the state of corruption among New Testament manuscripts. Among the existing manuscripts of the New Testament, there are three major divisions based on their content. The idea that God – through His power and wisdom – perfectly preserved the scriptures for faithful Christians to use in all ages. Typically, these variants are found only in a single manuscript, or in a small group of manuscripts from one small part of the world. Read simply, you can see how someone would get the Doctrine of preservation from this passage. Did God Preserve the Scriptures Perfectly in All Ages? Why would Peter suddenly be talking about the Bible? Now, I said all that to simply say this – There is a very noticeable and contradictory statement found in Acts 19:16. , (Note: I started this article for background to an article I’m working on about the best Bible translation, but it grew well beyond that. There one can observe that between NA25 and NA27, there were 397 changes in the Gospels, 119 in Acts, 149 in the Pauline Epistles, 46 in the General Epistles, and 29 in Revelation, internal evidence is found to the contrary,”, No readings of אB can safely be rejected absolutely, In fact, when you see a Bible footnote that says “the earliest and best manuscripts”, they are almost universally talking about these two manuscripts, and, It bears traces of careless transcription in every page. You can double check me by looking at Psalm 12:7 in an interlinear Bible. A reading that shows better grammar at the expense of theology is likely not original. Jim Scudder, Vanishing Landmarks-Hermeneutics and the New Translations – Dan Haifley. All the modern Greek Critical Texts bear an extremely strong resemblance to Westcott & Hort’s original 1881 Critical Text. I think how you can see how they get the Doctrine of Preservation, but it seems quite a stretch. These two passages are not the same and although we may not see how it matters to say “both” to the overall story, it matters when we come to the doctrine of preservation. ), Further, this method of disproving the Majority Text makes an incorrect assumption: that errors are tenacious, i.e. Some doctrines are certainly strengthened in the Byzantine Majority text and the Textus Receptus, but no major, central part of the gospel is affected. Coming from a KJV is the preserved words of God or as close as anyone has it in English AND holding a “confessional” position in regard to that, I find it refreshing to discover a critic who concedes and is open about the KJV’s unique eclecticism in its origins as opposed to the usual inaccurate treatment of it as wholly Majority Text as opposed to mainly Majority Text with reasoned deviations. The shorter form in Homer is considered to reflect Alexandrian critical know-how and scholarly revision applied to the text; the Alexandrian text of the NT is clearly shorter, has apparent Alexandrian connections, and may well reflect recensional activity. By an Alexandrian Church father’s own admission, manuscripts in Alexandria by 200 AD were already corrupt. Acts 19:16 And the man in whom the evil spirit was leaped on them, and overcame them, and prevailed against them, so that they fled out of that house naked and wounded. The Johannine Comma of 1 John 5:7-8: Added or Removed? (, 3rd generation: 8 correct copies, 7 incorrect copies (~1, 4th generation: 16 correct copies, 22 incorrect copies (~1, 5th generation: 32 correct copies, 60 incorrect copies (~1, Short = Alexandrian, reflecting “scholarly revision”, Medium = Widely believed to be the true/original because it maintained a near-identical form over 1000+ years, and most manuscripts are of this type. And further, the rules only have a few small differences from the typical Critical Text rules. That’s a bad idea. Another great thing about the WEB: The makers of this Bible wanted to fill a void, to create a modern translation with no copyright, a Bible that can be freely shared, or the whole Bible printed out and given to a friend without a royalty. Prefer NKJV NASB, Believe there is error They were originally written on either papyrus (essentially paper) or possibly parchment (animal skins) which have long since degraded with time and use. So it’s possible that without the south and east falling to the Muslims and the West turning to Latin, the majority of manuscripts wouldn’t be of a Byzantine Text type. Their rules for textual Criticism are below: (Note: I condensed these from here, at the bottom of the page.). I’ve copy/pasted the two rules that conflict just below: Westcott & Hort rule #9: Prefer readings in manuscripts that habitually contain better readings, which is more certain if it’s also an older manuscript and if it doesn’t contain combinations of other variations (as in rule #3). Further, many of those differences are too subtle to even translate. If you pick up any popular Bible (except the KJV and NKJV) it’s almost certainly translated primarily from the Alexandrian text type. And all flesh shall see it together; I appreciated that as well so my restless self could know I would be a minute. One of them appears to be of poor quality, one of mediocre quality and the remaining three appear to be of decent quality and – a few small variants aside – appear to be in near perfect agreement. Answer: The Textus Receptus (Latin for “Received Text”) is a Greek New Testament that provided the textual base for the vernacular translations of the Reformation Period. Is that really a position you want to take? (Note: there are some who are near militant on the importance of the Confessional Position. However, the earliest manuscripts that provide distinguishable readings date to about 200 AD (e.g. That means the only support for the Doctrine of (perfect) Preservation is the tradition of men. Like most Christians, they affirm that the original text of scripture in the original language – as penned by the original authors – is completely without error. Only problem is it’s sometimes so literal that it’s hard to understand. the KJV], Scrivener in his reconstructed and edited text used as his starting point the Beza edition of 1598, identifying the places where the English text had different readings from the Greek. Again, the only reason they didn’t give them any weight was because they (incorrectly) believed the Byzantine text was a combination of the Western and Alexandrian Text types. Here’s Dan Wallace – arguably the most respected New Testament textual critic alive today – talking about one of our oldest manuscripts, specifically Codex Alexandrius. You’re welcome, and I’m glad it blessed you. These types of Textual Variants make up ~24% of all Textual Variants. There’s further evidence – based on quotes they said – that they didn’t take the Bible seriously, literally, and endorsed the Theory of Evolution. They also discounted the entire Byzantine text type based on an assumption which has now been proved wrong. The Majority Text differs from the Textus Receptus in almost 2,000 places. Her head or her own head is just that. The Textual Variants between them are numerous. These singular reading disappeared, never to be seen again. And the man who found Codex Sinaiticus (Tischendorf) considered it the greatest find of his life, but still said: So, is there a Scribal preference to add rather than subtract? However, that not necessarily the case. The too lively satisfaction which I had displayed had aroused their suspicions as to the value of this manuscript. 17. It’s simplicity itself, but under-girding that simplicity is profound sophistication. Inerrancy, the modern Critical Text, and the question of which edition of the Textus Receptus is Perfect. I unrolled the cover, and discovered, to my great surprise, not only those very fragments which, fifteen years before, I had taken out of the basket, but also other parts of the Old Testament, the New Testament complete, and, in addition, the Epistle of Barnabas and a part of the Pastor of Hermas. For example take John 11:38 “Jesus wept.” If 25 manuscripts contain “Jesus was upset,” 30 said “Jesus was filled with compassion,” and 50 said “Jesus wept,” because the majority say “Jesus wept,” that will be in the WEB. that errors never disappear but instead are copied down through the generations. That’s pure theory without other evidence, but it’s interesting. For context, a “singular reading” is a Textual Variant that appears in only one manuscript and no other manuscripts whatsoever. In fact, it’s usually the first place I look for answers on questions relating to Textual Variants. There’s a closed door between us (so I don’t’ disturb her sleep) so I can’t actually see her in bed. Now consider the mass of evidence against the concept of tenacity: the hundreds of singular readings that appears in ancient manuscripts, but of which there is no trace in later manuscripts. There are good mathematical reasons (which we’ll look at) for this method. Erasmus also lacked a complete copy of the Book of Revelation and translated the last six verses back into Greek from the Latin Vulgate to finish his edition. It corrects the manuscript errors in the KJV while not letting in the Gnostic influence in manuscripts from Egypt that are used in more modern translations. (Also known as the “Authorized Version”, or “AV” for short.). The Elzevir text is practically a reprint of the text of Beza 1565 with about fifty minor differences in all. (Others disagree, but we’ll get to those arguments later. (On average. Now this is the Word (Jesus yet again) which by the gospel was preached to you. a lot of times. and you accidentally skip Hmm, could “the Word” here be Jesus? Further, if you take Robert Estienne at his word when he says he didn’t use Erasmus’ Greek Text as a source for his Greek text, then Erasmus had literally nothing to do with the King James Version or the “original” Textus Receptus. The grass withers, The typical examples of how to break this model are well-covered in this YouTube video. However, there’s another problem that’s far more practical. So the agreement is better than 99 percent. The idea that Scribes chose to copy better manuscripts makes perfect sense. 22 Since you have purified your souls in obeying the truth through the Spirit in sincere love of the brethren, love one another fervently with a pure heart. This brings us to one of the strongest arguments for the Majority Text theory: that scribes preferred to copy better manuscripts. Surely the people are grass. The New Westminster Dictionary of the Bible concurs, “It should be noted, however, that there is no prominent Biblical MS. in which there occur such gross cases of misspelling, faulty grammar, and omission, as in B [Vaticanus].”. The Textus Receptus reading supports apostolic authorship of the epistle, a point that is disputed among liberal scholars concerning 2 Peter. The “medium” Byzantine text with its near identical form for 1000+ years is ignored, and the shorter Alexandrian text is preferred. While translations aren’t very useful for deciding the exact wording of Greek, they can be very useful in deciding if certain words, phrases, and/or verses were included. While the Confessional Position holds no water, the Textus Receptus itself is a very good document. The criticism of the Homeric epics proceeds on much the same line. It’s “παρέρχομαι” (parerchomai), just like in Matthew 5:18 which we just looked at. EDIT: I finally got around to writing an article on the topic, which you can read here. It’s by no means perfect and certainly has flaws, but overall it’s quite good. (34 readings were changed from the NA27 to the NA28). Let’s go through it one chunk at a time. Thanks for all the hard work! Note: it will sound like I’m strongly biased in favor of the Majority Text while I present the “pro” side of the argument. which is every-thing in red. Otherwise there is too great a danger of reconstructing a “test tube text” which never existed at any time or place. Get up into the high mountain; Now that we know what Greek text the Confessional Position uses, let’s take a closer look at the various scriptural passages they use to support the doctrine of Preservation (which says God kept His Scriptures “pure in all ages”). Spoiler Alert: since learning some Greek, I recommend the NKJV and NASB depending on whether you prefer the Critical Text vs. the Textus Receptus and Majority Text. And if “older is better”, then it follows logically that the two oldest manuscripts are the best. The relevant portion says: “Textum ergo habes, nunc ab omnibus receptum: in quo nihil immutatum aut corruptum damus”, (Roughly Translated: “so you hold the text, now received by all, in which nothing (is) corrupt”.). Many Christians who could not withstand the persecution handed over their Scriptures to the authorities to be publicly burned. 1 Corinthians 11:8-10 (Berean Open Source Bible) Between these extremes, a “medium” or “vulgate” text exists. However, this argument can be reversed later as evidence against the Byzantine Text type. 2 “Speak comfort to Jerusalem, and cry out to her, Wow, if you’ve stayed to the end I congratulate you on your tenacity. He wrote a long “rebuttal” of the Majority Text entitled: “The Majority Text and the Original Text: Are They Identical?” That appears to be the standard “go to” article for rebutting the Majority text. This is a big difference. That brings us to 30 total manuscripts. The Moral of David & Goliath Isn’t What You’ve Been Taught, Why “Lusting” in Matthew 5:27-28 Doesn’t Make All Men Adulterers, The “Great Commission” in Matthew 28:19 is NOT What You’ve Been Taught, Does 1 Corinthians 11 Require Women To Wear “Head Coverings”. (Source for this quote is: “Homer: The Origins and the Transmission“, by Thomas W. Allen), 22. Please can you help? In textual criticism the pure theoretician has often done more harm than good. (And that’s not including quotes by including the early church fathers). There are other places with obvious error as well. So who’s to say that my wife isn’t running around town in her Pajamas? If you assume the mistakes are fairly randomly distributed, the Majority holds up quite well. However, it’s an attempt to reconstruct that text, not that actual text itself. Rather, decisions in textual criticism must be worked out afresh, passage by passage (the local principle). Further, the Bible doesn’t “live” or “abide” because it’s a book. Because I’m The edition most closely followed by them was Beza’s edition of 1598, but they departed from this edition for the reading in some other published Greek text at least 170 times, and in at least 60 places, the KJV translators abandoned all then-existing printed editions of the Greek New Testament, choosing instead to follow precisely the reading in the Latin Vulgate version. They began speaking Latin, and thus moved away from Greek scriptures and into Latin translations. Lift up your voice with strength, On page 78 of The King James Only Controversy, author James White states: “Once a variant reading appears in a manuscript, it doesn’t simply go away. He was able to view 43 sheets, which was a third of the sheets that were to be burned. Other major Textual Variants include the story of the woman caught in Adultery (Pericope Adulterae for short) and the last 12 verses in Mark’s Gospel. Its major weakness is outright dismissal of certain readings (without evidence), and that it’s based on essentially only two manuscripts of dubious quality. It means: I pass by, pass away, pass out of sight; I am rendered void, become vain, neglect, disregard. Frosty Puritan Board Sophomore. Fool and knave, can’t you leave the old reading alone, and not alter it! Despite this weakness, in this author’s humble opinion it’s more likely to have the closest readings to the original in a majority of places. And no matter how you read it, “both” never means “seven”. The differences between the two texts are many and important. Now, the first document to be called “Textus Receptus” – was published in 1633. (Note: the Byzantine Text type has several names, including the Traditional Text, Ecclesiastical Text, Constantinopolitan Text, Antiocheian Text, and Syrian Text.). Apparently, the note-writer regarded Codex Vaticanus as a museum-piece to be protected and preserved, rather than as a copy of Scripture to be used as such. More importantly, it’s patently unbiblical. This isn’t altogether uncommon with ancient manuscripts, but it does mean some places represent a 1th or 1tth century version, not a 4th century version. We’ll talk more about this later. The Alexandrian text is about 5% smaller than the Byzantine text, and there are some differences in words between the two texts. Say to the cities of Judah, “Behold your God!”. (Sort of). The Majority Text theory is that to a “T”. Actually, we know it did… we just don’t know if it happened with errors. The Textus Receptus is the textual basis behind KJV and NKJV. By an Alexandrian Church father’s own admission, manuscripts in Alexandria by 200 AD were already corrupt. This method applies a series of rules to the various manuscripts we’ve found (we’ll look at those rules in a moment). I started with a NKJV, then last 10 years or so a NASB. One of the greatest supporters of the Critical Text is Daniel Wallace. Hopefully, this can be a “one stop shop” for anyone wishing for an introduction on New Testament Textual Criticism. VIII. Hopefully you found it useful, complete, and you now have a good understanding of Textual Criticism. Every other modern translation I’m aware of – including the NASB – uses the Masoretic text also. Not perfect by any stretch (especially in Revelation) but very good. Source: The Greek New Testament according to the Majority Text, p. xi. Reasoned Eclecticism / Critical Text Conclusion, The Mathematical Case for The Majority Text, However, Some say this mathematical model is Wrong. Accordingly the need of accounting for the eventual predominance of the medium text, when the critics are shown to have been incapable of producing it, leads us to assume a medium text or vulgate in existence during the whole time of the hand-transmission of Homer. Criticism of the text must always begin from the evidence of the manuscript tradition and only afterward turn to a consideration of internal criteria. The translation is quite in order and your accusation of intentional mistranslation is unfounded. Thank you for creating an such a well constructed article. The Majority Text and the Original Text: Are They Identical? There is absolutely no support, whether Greek or English, to the contrary. This is based on the assumption that scribes will chose to copy good manuscripts over bad ones, and thus better readings will be in the majority over time. "Erasmus, a Dutch scholar, under patronage of Froben the printer ofBasel, had been preparing a Greek NT and it was published early in 1516. The core message of the gospel isn’t compromised in any of these documents. There are three major competing Greek sources to use for translating the New Testament: the Critical Text, the Majority Text, and the Textus Receptus. 23 having been born again, not of corruptible seed but incorruptible, through the Word of God (Jesus) which lives and abides forever, “All flesh is as grass, (disclaimer: It’s an “open source” translation where anyone can critique the translation work, and I *might* have gone back and forth a LOT about this verse with the translator…). For example in 196… The Confessional Position is the exact opposite. However, we’ll only concentrate on the two most influential. The oldest New Testament manuscript fragment is P52, which dates to about 125 AD. The foundational premise for the Confessional Position is quite different than the other two theories. The Alexandrian text type is slightly shorter than the Byzantine text type. Further, the NASB uses a modern reprint of the exact same text underlying the KJV. Long = characterized by Scribal “improvement” and expansion. I know almost nothing about Latin, or I’d check. God Bless, and venture forth armed with knowledge. O Jerusalem, They will typically only use the King James Bible (KJV) or New King James Bible (NKJV) as an English translation, but some will only accept the KJV. Just be careful that you aren’t “teaching as doctrines the precepts of men.”. Very Helpful Paul’s saying “don’t be like the women who shave their heads to show they won’t be under authority.” The covering is a woman’s long hair (as verse 15 says) and the passage is about women being “moraly obligated” to be under authority. And carry them in His bosom, I haven’t spent much time researching it though, so it’s merely an “at a glance” opinion. Three major points were made in this article: (1) The Majority Textdiffers from the Textus Receptus in almost 2,000 places, suggesting that the Byzantine text-type has been seen only through a glass darkly in the printed editions of the Textus Receptus. The Majority Text vs. However, the word I’ve highlighted in red isn’t plural (them); it’s singular (him). One thing i wanted to mention is i recently came into possession of the Eastern Orthodox Bible, New Testament. Because of this, there are nearly no Greek manuscripts from the west. Does it matter much if Paul wrote “a owl” vs “an “owl”? It’s a great tool for those who don’t know Greek or Hebrew, and a very useful tool even if you do. Of course, we believe that He did and that the reading in the Critical Text is inferior. So no, this verse doesn’t teach the Doctrine of Preservation. The one thing I will mention is Hort at least was motivated to eliminate the Textus Receptus from the public eye, as he considered it “vile”. The first manuscripts were copied onto either papyrus (ancient paper) or parchment (animal skins). Scrivener’s Textus Receptus is the closest to the Greek text which underlines the KJV. Because these manuscripts are so foundational to modern Critical Text, they bear a closer look. Codex Alexandrius is the third oldest (nearly) complete manuscript, dating from the early 400s. The Hebrew word there is “אֶמֶת” (emeth), and it means: Nearly every translation (besides the KJV, NKJV, and NASB) translate it as “faithfulness” or something similar. The links in this article will be read later. You might say, “But that wouldn’t happen.”. It’s definitely a step in the right direction. The first was Erasmus’ though, so let’s take a closer look at it. The science of assembling these manuscripts is called “Textual Criticism”, and you can consider this a complete Textual Criticism 101 article because we’ll look at these topics in exhaustive detail. No words and we never hear the gospel, and it is in His words that God’s truth to us regarding Jesus Christ is conveyed…and He says He has put His words above His very name. Medium = Byzantine Text type, characterized by near-identical form over 1000+ years, and most manuscripts are of this type, Long/paraphrase = Western Text type, characterized by its “love of paraphrase” is like the “uncontrolled popular text” of Homer. But I could not get them to yield up possession of the remainder. To be clear, the scribal quality of Codex Vaticanus isn’t terrible, but neither is it incredible. Opposite approach, preferring to look at the Codex Vaticanus, one scribe would read while several other copied... Theory could be called the glory of the gospel support we ’ ll need a good grasp the... They didn ’ t originate in the end, the Majority Text is Daniel Wallace somewhat less weight Greek... Casual reading of the Greek Text based on the official Text of Beza 1565, they... 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