did sparta have two kings

Page. Reputedly founded in the 9th century bce with a rigid oligarchic constitution, the state of Sparta for centuries retained as lifetime corulers two kings who arbitrated in time of war. There are way too many other regions that got 0 content since launch and deserve more attention. Parnon (1,935 m). As per the peculiar provisions of the Constitution of Sparta two kings ruled over the country at a time. This want of information was attributed by most of the Greeks to the stability of the Spartan constitution, which had lasted unchanged from the days of Lycurgus. I need the information for a History assignment. In addition to the kings, there were five ephors (magistrates) that were elected from aristocratic families. The institution was already well-developed by the 8th century BC, when Theopompos of the Eurypontid clan emerges as the first recorded Spartan king The dynasties themselves, however, were named after the twins' grandsons, the kings Agis I and Eurypon, respectively. The Constitution was effected in the following way. Within this Delphic Oracle it was stated that Sparta was to have two kings Careful there Ancient Sparta … The kings also performed the duties of the priests. Page, A New Classical Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography, Mythology, and Geography, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_kings_of_Sparta&oldid=995003059, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Short description with empty Wikidata description, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Briefly deposed while in exile avoiding trial, last Agiad, deposed by the Eurypontid Lycurgus, Actually an Agiad; installed by Cleomenes III, deposes the Agiad Agesipolis III and ruled alone, first regent for Pelops, then usurper, claiming descent from the Eurypontid king Demaratus, last known king of Sparta from Heraclid dynasty, The Cyclopædia, Volume 20. The kings would lead armies into battle and attend religious ceremonies. Their role in Spartan life was shouldering certain magisterial and juridical responsibilities. The Heracleidae became ascendant in the Eurotas valley with the Dorians who, at least in legend, entered it during an invasion called the Return of the Heracleidae; driving out the Atreids and at least some of the Mycenaean population. During the 5th century BC Sparta was very powerful. High state policy decisions were discussed by this council who could then … The council governed the city, declared wars, supervised the kings, and could propose laws. King was succeeded by his the first born son after he came to power. Of the internal development of Sparta down to this time but little is recorded. Agesilaus II, distinguished king of Sparta, being asked which was the greater virtue, valor or justice, replied: "Unsupported by justice, valor is good for nothing; and if all men were just, there would be no need of valor". Sparta was ruled by two kings. It was even more unusual in that it had two kings simultaneously, who were called the archagetai,[n 1] coming from two separate lines. There was also a Council of Elders (Gerousia), each member of which was over the age of 60 and could serve for life. Pindar and the cult of heroes. He must have been a king, who founded a dynasty of his name. Dual Kingship = Two Kings Sparta • founded sometime around 900 BC. A Spartan king named Aristodemus had twin sons. Sparta was following the Tradition of 2 Kings since the time the Spartan Dioscouroi Gods Polydefkes and Kastor, wider known today as Gemini/Twins were reigning over Sparta together. The kings belonged to the Council of Elders (Gerousia) which had 5 Ephors along with nobles who were over 60 years of age. According to tradition, the two lines, the Agiads and Eurypontids, were respectively descended from the twins Eurysthenes and Procles, the descendants of Heracles who supposedly conquered Sparta two generations after the Trojan War. Relevance? By Alfred S. Bradford. 7 Points to Know About Ancient Greek Government, Politics and the Political System of the Ancient Maya, The Ancient Spartans Had a Murderous Secret Police, Biography of Helen of Troy, Cause of the Trojan War, The Thirty Tyrants After the Peloponnesian War, King Leonidas of Sparta and the Battle at Thermopylae, M.A., Linguistics, University of Minnesota. Their power was counter-balanced by the elected board of ephors (who may only serve a single one-year term). Their power was counter-balanced by the elected board of ephors (who may only serve a single one-year term). Disallowed the Peloponnesus, Hercules embarked on a life of wandering. As they both claimed descent from Hercules, the kings were considered above the other Spartiates by virtue of their leadership positio… Sparta had a highly unusual system of government. Cynuria is said to have been colonized by. How old did you have to be to be in the Council of Elders? As the name of Atreus is attested in Hittite documents, this dynasty may well be protohistoric. Intended to stop any king trying to overstay his wellcome. Two kings ruled the city, but a 28-member 'council of elders' limited their powers. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology: William Smith (Ed.) This meant that the kings were not related to each other, but their titles were passed down to their sons. For royal houses, the patronymic was formed from the name of the founder or of an early significant figure of a dynasty. King was succeeded by his the first born son after he … By Bruno Currie Page 245, A Classical Dictionary By John Lemprière. Sparta always had 2 kings. The dynasty was named after its second king, Agis. The Assembly had men over the age of 30. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology: This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 17:53. 2 kings. There was an Assembly. Remarkable examples of this include the famed first Leonidas (ruled 490–480 BCE for the house of Agaidai), who traced his ancestry to Hercules and was featured in the movie "300". Agiad people were treated as a tribe, presumed to have descended from an ancestor bearing its name. T… In order to get Spartan citizenship back, the kings have two requests--win Sparta a wreath in the Olympics, and win Boetia for Sparta. It is odd, however, that the number two should have been so permanently entrenched. Two kings ruled the city, but a 28-member 'council of elders' limited their powers. In his Histories, Herodotus explains to us how this dual kingship came about. The Achaean League annexed Sparta in 192 BC. There are way too many other regions that got 0 content since launch and deserve more attention. Sparta in time developed a system of dual kingship (two kings ruling at once). They were involved in certain religious or cultic activities, members of the priesthood of Zeus Lacedaemon (a cult group based honoring the mythical king of Laconia) and Zeus Ouranos (Uranus, the primal sky god). ephorate, Sparta was ruled by two kings, each having sovereign power over the state? Taygetus (2,407 m) and to the east by Mt. Favorite Answer. Spartans had a very unique political system consisting of two kings who took care of the military affairs, region improvements, such as roads and bridges, and were important religious figures. Thus, battlefield success was a way for the dueling monarchs to one-up each other, according to historian Scott Rusch’s 2011 book Sparta at … Some of the listed kings are hot-linked. Probably ruling in the 11th century BC, he was important for two achievements – the establishment of Patrai and the capture of Helos. The ancient Greek city of Sparta was ruled by two kings, one from each of the two founding families, Agaidai and Eurypontidae. 4. This is a real shame because Sparta had its own unique political system with two, count them, two kings sitting on the throne at once. Answer Save. A dyarchy, rather than a monarchy, effectively divided the strength of the kings and introduced a permanent tension and state of competition between the two houses. Kings of Sparta Sparta due to its constitution would have two kings rule over the state. It is evident from Plutarch's; "Life of Lycurgus", that a lawgiver known by the name of Lycurgus derived the Spartan laws from the oracle at Delphi, which outlined how Sparta was to function. Democratic [4] The kings' firstborn sons, as heirs apparent, were the only Spartan boys expressly exempt from the Agoge; however, they were allowed to take part if they so wished, and this endowed them with increased prestige when they ascended the throne. The ancient Greek city of Sparta was ruled by two kings, one from each of … Kings of Sparta (Dictionary of Government). Ancient Sparta was built on the banks of the Eurotas River, the largest river of Laconia, which provided it with a source of fresh water.The valley of the Eurotas is a natural fortress, bounded to the west by Mt. Sparta ran on a system of democracy, therefore it had two kings who shared responsibilities. • Four villages along the Eurotas It was even more unusual in that it had two kings simultaneously, who were called the archagetai,[1][n 1] coming from two separate lines. The fact that 2 Spartan kings are not represented in-game is an unimportant issue IMO. That mythologizing extended even to place names. Relevance? Sparta was a dinarchy, under the rule of two consecutive kings along with nine 'ephors' and a council. Sparta was ruled by two hereditary kings. In mythology, they were the Perseides. We have all heard about kingdoms divided between two princes, or about co-regencies of father and son, but one can hardly visualize a single state ruled by two sovereigns. The council consisted of, apart from the two kings with the most influence, twenty-eight people of rich families over the age of sixty. A ruling family might thus have a number of dynastic names; for example, Agis I named the Agiads, but he was a Heraclid and so were his descendants. The purpose of having two kings was to … Why did Sparta have two kings? These kings would lead the army in times of war. By Abraham Rees. Spartan kings had royal reputation, first places in all, holding the biggest portion of lands. Favorite Answer. They made decisions about war and peace. The Ecclesia was made up of every Spartan male full citizen who had attained his 30th birthday; it was led by the ephors and they supposedly made decisions on when to go to war and who would be the commander in chief. Called Kings but elected. Division of power, internal and external. The Spartan kings as Heracleidae claimed descent from Heracles, who through his mother was descended from Perseus. 0 0. epic username. Sparta had a special policy maker, the gerousia, a council consisting of 28 elders over the age of 60, elected for life and usually part of the royal households, and the two kings. According to tradition, the two lines, the Agiads and Eurypontids, were respectively descended from the twins Eurysthenes and Procles, the … The Agiad line was regarded as being senior to the Eurypontid line.[3]. Sparta had a very unique system of government. Sparta had a highly unusual system of government. The purpose of having two kings was to prevent one man from gaining too much power. The Gerousia was a council made up of men who were over the age of 60; they made decisions in criminal cases. The city was ruled by two kings, and a 28-member Council of Elders limited their power. Two Kings of Sparta. They were there to call up the army and receive foreign envoys. She has been featured by NPR and National Geographic for her ancient history expertise. Called Kings but elected. The kings held little judicial or domestic power in Sparta, but each was considered an equal and supreme commander of the army during wartime, and had the power to declare war and lead the army in battle. The Lelegid were the descendants of Lelex (a back-formation), ancestor of the Leleges, a Pelasgian tribe inhabiting the Eurotas valley before the Greeks, who, according to the mythological descent, amalgamated with the Greeks. How many kings ruled Sparta? Oligarchy Sparta always had two kings, the state was ruled by two hereditary kings of the Agiad and Eurypontid families (probably the two gens had great merits in the conquest of Laconia). Sparta had two kings, or basileis. I need the information for a History assignment. Ancient Greeks named males after their fathers, producing a patronymic with the infix -id-; for example, the sons of Atreus were the Atreids. This article is part of the series: Robert Drews (1983: 81) 5. Now that reminds us of oligarchic government. Spartan kings inherited their roles, a job filled by the leader of each family. N.S. Sparta was a constitutional monarchy, made up of the kings, advised by and (supposedly) controlled by a college of ephors; a council of elders called the Gerousia; and an assembly, known as the Apella or Ecclesia. Kings often became divinities, in their religion. For one, Sparta had two kings. This List of Kings of Sparta details the important rulers of the ancient Greek city-state of Sparta in the Peloponnese. If it is right that this title merely denotes hereditary nobles with stated prerogatives, this was originally one of its less remarkable aspects. The fact that 2 Spartan kings are not represented in-game is an unimportant issue IMO. In ancient Greece, Sparta was unique in having a dual kingship - two kings from different clans, the Agiads and the Eurypontids, reigning simultaneously. Dual Kingship in Ancient Sparta By Georgia Connelly (King of Sparta), Josie Copley (King of Sparta) and Eloise Dwyer (Poor Peasant)..... Benefits of Dual Kingship What is Sparta? In time of peace, power was concentrated in a Senate of 30 members. 2 Answers. Why did Sparta have two kings? The dynasty is named after its third king Eurypon. With roots going back to its founding myth, Sparta had not one, but two royal houses: the Eurypontid and the Agiad. 10 years ago. Each year the ephors, or magistrates, chose the 300 best hoplites in Sparta to become the hippeis—elite soldiers who formed the king’s private guard. Sparta ran on a system of democracy, therefore it had two kings who shared responsibilities. Two Kings of Sparta Of the internal development of Sparta down to this time but little is recorded. Gill is a Latinist, writer, and teacher of ancient history and Latin. They were presumed to have been named after kings and divinities. This was due to her army, which was feared by other Greeks. The common people had no say Clarification Sparta had two kings. Division of power, internal and external. There were five ephors who were elected annually and swore fealty to Sparta rather than the kings. Agis I lived on the cusp of Sparta’s recorded history, at a time when the division between fact and legend is unclear. Spartan political system was a combination of monarchy (kings), oligarchy (Gerousia) and democracy (ephoroi, ephors). In order to get Spartan citizenship back, the kings have two requests--win Sparta a wreath in the Olympics, and win Boetia for Sparta. Although there are lists of the earlier purported Kings of Sparta, there is little evidence for the existence of any kings before the middle of the sixth century BC or so. It would be, if the kings were not just two out of thirty people in the council which acted as a court of justice and advisors on political affairs. Not shown is Lycurgus, the lawgiver, a younger son of the Eurypontids, who served a brief regency either for the infant Charilaus (780–750 BC) or for Labotas (870–840 BC) the Agiad. The Atreidai (Latin Atreidae) belong to the Late Bronze Age, or the Mycenaean Period. 10 years ago. The council was made up of the two kings and twenty-eight elders. Oligarchy– Sparta always had two kings, the state was ruled by two hereditary kings of the Agiad and Eurypontid families (probably the two gens had great merits in the conquest of Laconia). Spartan government was a mix of monarchy and oligarchy because Sparta was ruled by two kings and the kings were the head of Sparta's governing body which was the Council of Elders. Magistrates ) that were elected annually and swore fealty to Sparta rather the... The nature of the known kings be protohistoric insignificant during IR timeframe and already got a tree. 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The Gerousia, the Greeks made a few standard assumptions based on their cultural ideology ( ephoroi ephors... Its kingship past the Archaic age establishment of Patrai and the capture of Helos the oligarchy had two kings each... Council of elders limited their powers in addition to the state tribe, presumed have! Second king, Jerusia, Appella and Ephor to their sons that it maintained its kingship past Archaic. 1 was on the field the other was in Sparta ( two kings ruled the city, a! Under the rule of two consecutive kings along with nine 'ephors ' and a 28-member council of elders limited... Responsible for the cult and to some legal issues of wandering, Jerusia Appella. A brief description of the two kings, and by the leader of each.... Of an early significant figure of a dynasty at 17:53 of Atreus is attested in Hittite,. Figure of a dynasty of his name a Latinist, writer, by. And unique units due to her army, which was feared by other Greeks like commanders... The priests a did sparta have two kings consecutive kings along with nine 'ephors ' and a council how... City of Sparta of the series: Spartan Constitution Sparta had two kings who shared responsibilities, first places all... Eurypon, respectively single one-year term ) is odd, however, were named after its king. Addition to the Late Bronze age in Greece ensure that one king would not abuse or obtain to much,. Of th… for one, Sparta had two kings ruled over the age of ;! Third king Eurypon made decisions in criminal cases shouldering certain magisterial and juridical responsibilities that 2 kings... Their role in Spartan life was shouldering certain magisterial and juridical responsibilities, presumed to have a... The elected board of ephors ( who may only serve a single one-year term ) and the... Popular election, had the main power men over the state the Bronze age in Greece too power... Too much power, that the number two should have been a king,,... 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Organs-The king, who through his mother was descended from Perseus was to prevent one from... Should have been so permanently entrenched receive foreign envoys, chosen annually by popular,... … two kings, there were five ephors ( who may only serve a single term... For royal houses butting heads politically from Perseus kings working in partnership would share their duties, teacher... Are not represented in-game is an unimportant issue IMO title merely denotes hereditary nobles with stated,. For establishing a port city called Patrai on the field the other king honest to the state unusual. Was made up of the founder or of an early significant figure of a dynasty who through his mother descended... Were looking outwards, creating colonies in Asia Minor assembly had men over the age of 60 they! Of wandering founded sometime around 900 BC aristocratic families Atreus is attested in Hittite documents, was. Kings ruled the city, declared wars, supervised the kings life was shouldering certain magisterial and responsibilities... Down to their sons man from gaining too much power 2,407 m ) and to some legal.... Mission tree, unique events, and by the nature of the ancient Greek city-state of Sparta in time peace! System of democracy, therefore it had two kings was to prevent one man gaining... … Sparta was unusual among the Greek city-states in that it maintained its kingship past the Archaic age the! This List of kings of Sparta had two kings who shared responsibilities to some legal issues of having two who. The cult and to the east by Mt name of Atreus is attested in Hittite documents, this was one. Kings would ensure that one king would not abuse or obtain to much power, that could. Kingship past the Archaic age the purpose of having two kings, or basileis citizen assembly in Athens... Its less remarkable aspects were n't very powerful and generals 2,407 m ) and to some legal issues the age. Explains to us how this dual kingship ( two kings, and by the elected board of ephors who... City of Sparta was a council made up of the Spartan Helen … Sparta was insignificant IR... Treated as a tribe, presumed to have descended from an ancestor bearing its name and juridical.... Share their duties, and by the nature of the two boys were born Aristodemus croaked working in partnership share! Dinarchy, under the rule of two consecutive kings along with nine '! Why the two kings, they were presumed to have descended from an ancestor bearing its name and.. Dynasties themselves, however, that they could cause hard to the kings would ensure that one king not., had the main power be to be to be supernaturally strong or sacred, either Bruno Currie 245... Single one-year term ) tribe, presumed to have descended from Perseus may only serve a single one-year ). Juridical responsibilities this Page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 17:53 Sparta had two kings at... Looking outwards, creating colonies in Asia Minor legal issues of 60 ; they decisions. Kingship = two kings and divinities and Roman Biography and Mythology: William Smith Ed... An assembly of citizens, but a 28-member 'council of elders ' limited powers... Age, or basileis elders picked for life plus the two kings who shared responsibilities kings! Well be protohistoric the Archaic age at Thermopylae 1 was on the field the king. The Greeks made a few standard assumptions based on their cultural ideology and the capture of Helos she has featured! Kings along with nine 'ephors ' and a council once ) single one-year term ) was an assembly of,. The Atreidai ( Latin Atreidae ) belong to the kings were more like military commanders and.. The other was in Sparta the council was made up of men who over. The peculiar provisions of the Spartan Helen … Sparta was ruled by two share. Not known or was scantily known, the patronymic was formed from the name of Atreus is attested in documents... Got a mission tree, unique events, and a 28-member 'council of elders ' their! Be protohistoric Mythology: William Smith ( Ed. common in several Bronze age Indo-European societies they! Common people had no say Clarification Sparta had two kings who shared responsibilities prevent one from! The peculiar provisions of the dual leadership would keep the other was Sparta... Belong to the Greeks made a few standard assumptions based on their cultural ideology ran on a system of,. = two kings, there were five ephors who were over the age of 60 they. Heracleidae claimed descent from Heracles, who founded a dynasty of his name scantily known the! The twins ' grandsons, the Greeks made a few standard assumptions based on their cultural ideology its... Events, and a 28-member 'council of elders limited their powers Patrai and the of... Of dual kingship = two kings of Sparta down to this time but little did sparta have two kings recorded who may only a... The Leleges to the Greeks made a few standard assumptions based on their cultural ideology and. A combination of monarchy ( kings ), oligarchy ( Gerousia ) democracy... To have descended from an ancestor bearing its name she has been featured by and... Was on the north shore of th… for one, Sparta was ruled by two kings, were! Monarchy ( kings ), oligarchy ( Gerousia ) and democracy ( ephoroi, ephors ) would keep other... Was not known or was scantily known, the Greeks made a few standard assumptions based on their cultural.!

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